東 栄一郎

(あずま・えいいちろう)

アラン・チャールズ・コース・ターム・チェアの称号(ペンシルベニア大学の優れた歴史研究者を称するために与えられる)を得たペンシルベニア大学の史学及びアジア系アメリカ人研究の助教授。著書として、「Between Two Empires: Race, History, and Transnationalism in Japanese America」 (Oxford University Press, 2005年) 、ユウジ・イチオカ氏との共編「Before Internment: Essays in Prewar Japanese American History」 (Stanford University Press, 2006) がある。また、現在デビッド・ヨー氏と共に「The Oxford Handbook of Asian American History. Between 1992 and 2000」を編集している。過去に全米日系人博物館の学芸員兼研究員を務めた経験があり、カリフォルニア大学ロサンゼルス校からアジア系アメリカ人研究の修士及び博士号を取得。

(2013年 7月 更新)

migration en ja es pt

日系移民史百科事典

日本人の海外移住、1868年―1998年

日本人の海外移住の背景

日本人の海外移民は、 王政復古(1868年)とともに始まりました。世界各地を結びつける国際経済、労働市場、交通網の一部となった日本は、経済混乱とそれに伴う急速な社会変化に見舞われました。特に農業形態や経済構造が変わっていくなかで、農村部を中心に余剰労働力及び家庭経済が貧困化する状況が生まれ、国内及び海外へ移動する出稼ぎ労働者が増加したのです。

海外移住の始まり

1868年、横浜在住アメリカ商人ユージン・バンリードは、148人の日本人労働者をハワイの砂糖プランテーションへ、そのほか40人をグアムへ送りました。この出稼ぎ労働者の一団は一般に「元年者」として知られ、政府の許可や旅券を受けることなく日本を出国しました。近代日本最初の海外「移民」だった ...

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community en

In This Great Land of Freedom: The Japanese Pioneers of Oregon

Chapter 4 — Japanese Immigrant Families and Community Development

“Japan is such a small island country…. What is the use of returning to such a place? If we have to fulfill our filial duty to parents and live with wives, why don’t we have them come to America? If the difference in the language and customs bothers us, why don’t we learn to adapt to them”1

Masuo Yasui

The rapid development of Japanese farm communities in Oregon was marked by the emergence of families. The early Japanese immigrant society was primarily a world of young bachelors. During the 1910s, the migratory nature of the community changed ...

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community en

In This Great Land of Freedom: The Japanese Pioneers of Oregon

Chapter 3 — Development of Japanese Farming Communities

The untouched ground of America
I began to hoe
This virgin soil. 

Honda Fugetsu1

During the 1900s, many Japanese immigrants moved into agricultural work. At first, the Issei were drawn by better wages to work on farms. In 1909, farm laborers represented more than a quarter of the total 3,873 Japanese in Oregon. Known as buranke katsugi [blanket carriers], they were seasonal migrants, carrying blankets with a few other daily necessities. Many of these men subsequently invested their earnings and rose above the class of common laborers to sharecroppers, leaseholders, and farm owners. According to the Portland Japanese ...

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migration en

In This Great Land of Freedom: The Japanese Pioneers of Oregon

Chapter 2 — Early Japanese Life in Oregon

Working as a hop picker
It is impossible to
Return to Japan

Honda Fugetsu1

Before 1910, the majority of the Oregon Japanese population were male laborers who lived in a crude environment. Initially, most, if not all of them came to America not to settle, but to work and make money for their families in Japan. For these people, Portland was a temporary home to which they returned when they completed seasonal work. Until they found their next jobs, they stayed at Japanese hotels and ate at the inexpensive restaurants. When the economy was unfavorable, these migratory laborers were ...

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migration en

In This Great Land of Freedom: The Japanese Pioneers of Oregon

Chapter 1 — The Issei Arrive in Oregon

The History of the Issei Pioneers in Oregon, 1880 – 1952

Between 1843 and 1860, more than 250,000 pioneers began the journey across the Oregon Trail heading west. In 1859, Oregon became one of the United States and was still a young state with undeveloped forests and virgin farmlands when the Japanese immigrants arrived in the 1880s. Called Issei, the first generation, Japanese immigrants, like all pioneers, struggled to survive in their new environment. Unlike most other immigrants, the Issei were classified as “aliens ineligible to citizenship” under American naturalization laws. They had to combat social and legal discrimination while ...

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