東 栄一郎

(あずま・えいいちろう)

アラン・チャールズ・コース・ターム・チェアの称号(ペンシルベニア大学の優れた歴史研究者を称するために与えられる)を得たペンシルベニア大学の史学及びアジア系アメリカ人研究の助教授。著書として、「Between Two Empires: Race, History, and Transnationalism in Japanese America」 (Oxford University Press, 2005年) 、ユウジ・イチオカ氏との共編「Before Internment: Essays in Prewar Japanese American History」 (Stanford University Press, 2006) がある。また、現在デビッド・ヨー氏と共に「The Oxford Handbook of Asian American History. Between 1992 and 2000」を編集している。過去に全米日系人博物館の学芸員兼研究員を務めた経験があり、カリフォルニア大学ロサンゼルス校からアジア系アメリカ人研究の修士及び博士号を取得。

(2013年 7月 更新)

migration en ja es pt

日系移民史百科事典

日本人の海外移住、1868年―1998年

日本人の海外移住の背景

日本人の海外移民は、 王政復古(1868年)とともに始まりました。世界各地を結びつける国際経済、労働市場、交通網の一部となった日本は、経済混乱とそれに伴う急速な社会変化に見舞われました。特に農業形態や経済構造が変わっていくなかで、農村部を中心に余剰労働力及び家庭経済が貧困化する状況が生まれ、国内及び海外へ移動する出稼ぎ労働者が増加したのです。

海外移住の始まり

1868年、横浜在住アメリカ商人ユージン・バンリードは、148人の日本人労働者をハワイの砂糖プランテーションへ、そのほか40人をグアムへ送りました。この出稼ぎ労働者の一団は一般に「元年者」として知られ、政府の許可や旅券を受けることなく日本を出国しました。近代日本最初の海外「移民」だった ...

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community en

In This Great Land of Freedom: The Japanese Pioneers of Oregon

Chapter 8 — Renewed Oppression and Final Struggle

Once he was our friend
The owner of the store now
Behaves nervously
Refusing to sell us goods

Shizue Iwatsuki1

With the war coming to an end, Oregon experienced renewed anti-Japanese movements. In Gresham, local farmers and businessmen, inspired by the economic advantage of Japanese exclusion, started a campaign to prevent their return as early as 1943. This movement led to the establishment of the Oregon Anti-Japanese Inc., in November, 1944. Later renamed the Japanese Exclusion League, this group called for “the enactment of legislation, both State and Federal, designed to exclude from United States citizenship now ineligible for ...

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war en

In This Great Land of Freedom: The Japanese Pioneers of Oregon

Chapter 7 — Issei Life Behind Barbed Wire

The harsh winds of autumn
Pierce the spirit of those
Who live at the mercy of fate
Created by the war.

Akiyama1

The internees had primitive living conditions. The North Portland Assembly Center had previously been used as the Pacific International Livestock Exposition Building and was barely adapted for human habitation. Each family was assigned to a small, single room in a large barrack with walls made of thin plywood sheets. In order to make each room as “homey” as possible, the internees made shelves, tables, chairs, cupboards and other furniture and appliances for themselves. They hung curtains or ...

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war en

In This Great Land of Freedom: The Japanese Pioneers of Oregon

Chapter 6 — Pearl Harbor: Days of Anguish and Confusion

We have spent two-thirds of our lives in the United States and we feel we are more American than Japanese; we are willing to do anything we may be asked to do to help our foster mother.

A Portland Issei, January 23, 19421

Japan’s attack on Pearl Harbor had a profound impact on Issei life. Immediately classified as “enemy aliens,” they were no longer able to assure security for themselves or for their children. “Asleep or awake, I felt as if I were losing the color in my face,” said a Portland merchant. “I knew that our lives ...

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community en

In This Great Land of Freedom: The Japanese Pioneers of Oregon

Chapter 5 — The Struggle Against Exclusion

A series of exclusions
Now getting used to it
I spend each day farming

Honda Fugetsu1

While building their community and industries, Japanese immigrants struggled against exclusionists’ threats. Combined with the rise of anti-foreign sentiments of World War I, the rapid growth of Issei agriculture stirred whites’ fear of Japanese competition. As the Hood River Japanese farmers showed a notable prosperity with a high level of land ownership, they became the prime target of organized exclusionist attacks. The local American Legion was the forerunner of the movement. It not only opposed Japanese land ownership in Hood River but also ...

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