Eiichiro Azuma

Eiichiro Azuma é Professor Associado de História [cuja contratação é vinculada a doações em nome do Professor Alan Charles Kors] e de Estudos Asiático-Americanos da Universidade da Pensilvânia. É autor de Between Two Empires: Race, History, and Transnationalism in Japanese America (Oxford University Press, 2005) e co-editor de Yuji Ichioka, Before Internment: Essays in Prewar Japanese American History (Stanford University Press, 2006). O Professor Azuma também trabalha atualmente com David Yoo na edição da Oxford Handbook of Asian American History. Entre os anos de 1992 e 2000, trabalhou como Curador/Pesquisador do Museu Nacional Japonês Americano, tem Mestrado em Estudos Americanos Asiáticos e PhD em História pela UCLA [Universidade da Califórnia em Los Angeles].

Atualizado em julho de 2013

migration en ja es pt

Enciclopédia do migração nikkei

Resumo Histórico sobre as Emigrações Japonesas, 1868-1998

Antecedente da Migração Japonesa para o Exterior

A migração transoceânica dos japoneses iniciou-se com a abertura da ilha-nação para o resto do mundo e sua entrada na era moderna em 1868. Ao tornarem-se parte da rede internacional de mão-de-obra, capital e transporte, os japoneses subitamente encontraram-se em meio a uma rápida mudança socio-econômica, criando assim uma população rural pronta para a migração doméstica e internacional.

Início da Migração para o Exterior

Em 1868, um negociante americano enviou ao Havaí um grupo de 148 japoneses para trabalharem em ...

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In This Great Land of Freedom: The Japanese Pioneers of Oregon

Chapter 5 — The Struggle Against Exclusion

A series of exclusions
Now getting used to it
I spend each day farming

Honda Fugetsu1

While building their community and industries, Japanese immigrants struggled against exclusionists’ threats. Combined with the rise of anti-foreign sentiments of World War I, the rapid growth of Issei agriculture stirred whites’ fear of Japanese competition. As the Hood River Japanese farmers showed a notable prosperity with a high level of land ownership, they became the prime target of organized exclusionist attacks. The local American Legion was the forerunner of the movement. It not only opposed Japanese land ownership in Hood River but also ...

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In This Great Land of Freedom: The Japanese Pioneers of Oregon

Chapter 4 — Japanese Immigrant Families and Community Development

“Japan is such a small island country…. What is the use of returning to such a place? If we have to fulfill our filial duty to parents and live with wives, why don’t we have them come to America? If the difference in the language and customs bothers us, why don’t we learn to adapt to them”1

Masuo Yasui

The rapid development of Japanese farm communities in Oregon was marked by the emergence of families. The early Japanese immigrant society was primarily a world of young bachelors. During the 1910s, the migratory nature of the community changed ...

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In This Great Land of Freedom: The Japanese Pioneers of Oregon

Chapter 3 — Development of Japanese Farming Communities

The untouched ground of America
I began to hoe
This virgin soil. 

Honda Fugetsu1

During the 1900s, many Japanese immigrants moved into agricultural work. At first, the Issei were drawn by better wages to work on farms. In 1909, farm laborers represented more than a quarter of the total 3,873 Japanese in Oregon. Known as buranke katsugi [blanket carriers], they were seasonal migrants, carrying blankets with a few other daily necessities. Many of these men subsequently invested their earnings and rose above the class of common laborers to sharecroppers, leaseholders, and farm owners. According to the Portland Japanese ...

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In This Great Land of Freedom: The Japanese Pioneers of Oregon

Chapter 2 — Early Japanese Life in Oregon

Working as a hop picker
It is impossible to
Return to Japan

Honda Fugetsu1

Before 1910, the majority of the Oregon Japanese population were male laborers who lived in a crude environment. Initially, most, if not all of them came to America not to settle, but to work and make money for their families in Japan. For these people, Portland was a temporary home to which they returned when they completed seasonal work. Until they found their next jobs, they stayed at Japanese hotels and ate at the inexpensive restaurants. When the economy was unfavorable, these migratory laborers were ...

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