Eileen H. Tamura

Eileen H. Tamura is a professor, history of education, in the Department of Educational Foundations, College of Education, University of Hawai‘i–Manoa.

Updated February 2011

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Value Messages Collide with Reality: Joseph Kurihara and the Power of Informal Education - Part 10 of 10

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Value Messages and the Power of Informal Education

The foregoing reveals a continuity of values from youth through adulthood. In Kurihara’s case, he was receptive to certain values that were nurtured during his schooldays and young adulthood, values that were played out dramatically in his later adulthood. In some ways his behavior as a dissident during World War II may be seen as a radical change: from model student and young adult, to “trouble-maker” in Manzanar. Beneath the surface, however, was a continuity of values and beliefs that proved to be remarkably resilient.

The foregoing also ...

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Value Messages Collide with Reality: Joseph Kurihara and the Power of Informal Education - Part 9 of 10

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In Manzanar, outside the schoolhouse walls, another educational process was occurring, this one among adults, meaningful and relevant to the situation in which they found themselves. In the barrack-apartments, in the mess halls, in conversations under the evening sky, in arguments among those of opposing views, and in meetings large and small, this education was unstructured and informal. The learners were themselves the teachers, exchanging thoughts, attempting to make sense of their situation, and debating their best course of action. As in the schools the youths attended, the theme at these encounters was democracy, and the discussions ...

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Value Messages Collide with Reality: Joseph Kurihara and the Power of Informal Education - Part 8 of 10

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Six months after it was transferred to the WRA, Manzanar experienced a revolt that ended in the death of two innocent young men and shook the confidence of the administration and inmates alike. At 8 PM on 5 December 1942, six masked men entered the apartment of a Nisei, Fred Tayama, and assaulted him with clubs. Tayama was widely despised as an aggressive opportunist. In the decade before the war, his chain of restaurants was known for their poor working conditions and low wages. He was also co-owner of a company that charged Issei exorbitant fees for ...

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Value Messages Collide with Reality: Joseph Kurihara and the Power of Informal Education - Part 7 of 10

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Informal Education: Making Meaning of Incarceration  

Even before war broke out between the United States and Japan, the FBI and army and navy intelligence had been suspicious of the Nikkei, particularly those living on the U.S. west coast and in Hawai‘i. Since 1939, the agencies had been keeping lists primarily of suspected Issei (Japanese immigrants) but also of some Nisei—their children, who were American citizens. Soon after the Pearl Harbor attack, the FBI arrested those they labeled as dangerous.1

On 19 February 1942, President Franklin D. Roosevelt signed Executive Order 9066. With a ...

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Value Messages Collide with Reality: Joseph Kurihara and the Power of Informal Education - Part 6 of 10

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During the day, Kurihara and his fellow soldiers were occupied with bivouac and artillery practice, trench digging and mock trench warfare, bayonet drills, hiking, and marching. In their spare time they participated in team sports, took classes, and enjoyed movies and other forms of recreation. Through the War Camp Community Service, Kurihara enjoyed the hospitality of the families of Homer Knight, a physician in the nearby town of Charlotte, and William Green, president of an advertising company in Detroit. In his several visits to their homes, he was “treated like a prince.” He was deeply touched by ...

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