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30 Years of Lakeview: Chicago’s Japanese American Community 1960s-1990s - Part 2

Read Part 1 >> 

“Growing up in Lakeview during the 1960s, where there were so many Japanese American relocatees, provided a unique childhood experience. Because there were so many families that knew each other in some way or another, there was a sense of safety in that there was always someone, some neighbor or friend of the family, who lived nearby. Like many Nisei, my father had a business in the neighborhood and knew many Issei and Nisei, including the owners of the businesses on a long strip of North Clark Street. Everyone seemed to know everyone else. This also provided a sense of self‐policing, as none of us dared do anything to bring shame upon our families. That pressure to ‘not bring shame upon your race’ kept most Nikkei in line. Social pressure was also instrumental in other areas. As a child, I remember my parents talking about a Nisei man who beat his wife. When he walked into Nisei Lounge, a local tavern, everyone turned their backs to him and let him know that ‘wife beaters were not welcome there’ and that he could return when he began treating his wife properly.

“It was always nice to know that if you needed to stop to rest, or you felt uncomfortable by someone following you, there were numerous Japanese‐owned businesses on Clark Street where you could seek safe haven. Among this community certain things were all‐known, that our families had been imprisoned for having Japanese ancestry. It was, and still is, a unique experience to grow up with, to question, and for most of us, to make sure this sort of thing never happens again. It was in this community that we shared experiences and cultural interests. I learned how to make grapefruit yokan from a neighbor, others came over to our place to learn fine tailoring and fine baking from my mother. To some extent, this created a closed community where we could grow up safely.

“Perhaps my favorite place to go was with my mother to Star Market, a Japanese grocery store. Howard and Sada Hatanaka, and Hayato and Toki Morikado, the store’s owners, would always make me feel special just by saying ‘hi.’ Growing up in this type of community, many people were poor, having lost most of everything from the incarceration, but for many of us Sansei, the experience we received was rich, thanks to our parents’ efforts. This allowed us to grow both in awareness and consciousness, and to help us be stronger Americans.”

—Mary Uyeda Matsumoto, former resident

J. Toguri Mercantile Co. 
851 W. Belmont (Map Item #40)
Jun Toguri & Family
Moved from 1128 N. Clark
Current status: Closed
Photo courtesy of the author  

* * * * *

Japanese Culture Center
1016 W. Belmont (Map Item #50)
Fumio Toyoda
Current status: Extant as of 2014, under management of son, Stephen Toyoda
Photo courtesy of the author  

“I grew up in the Lakeview neighborhood from 1970‐1983 on Wilton Avenue, between Waveland and Addison, one block east of Wrigley and a few blocks from my father’s bar, Nisei Lounge. I went to LeMoyne Elementary from K‐8 and back in the ’70s, it was not the upscale neighborhood now known as ‘Wrigleyville’ but a very rough, ethnic working class area of gangs and graffiti known as East Lakeview.

“During the hot summer days in the ’70s and early ’80s, I’d stop in occasionally with my friends at the Nisei Lounge because it was air‐conditioned (unlike our apartments). My dad would let us sit at the bar and serve us a ‘mixed drink’ of papaya juice and 7‐Up. He always had papaya juice on hand because so many of the clientele were Japanese from Hawaii. My friends still remember that almost 40 years later.

“I and my friends loved eating at Hamburger King because you could get rice with anything. They had the best burgers, fries, rice and gravy, rice pudding, eggs, and the Akutagawa! The Akutagawa dish was named after George Akutagawa, a friend who traveled to Japan with my dad when he met my mom there in 1963.

“The East Lakeview neighborhood of the ’70s was a mix of Asians, Blacks, Caucasians, and Latinos. The Puerto Rican gangs at the time were notorious. There were the Latin Eagles, and the grammar school recruits were the Wilton Boys who hung out on the front porch of my apartment building. Growing up there, the every‐other‐day fights after school seemed normal to me. You learned to not wear certain ‘gang’ colors and avoid certain groups so you wouldn’t get beaten up, stabbed, or shot. It wasn't until years later that I realized that not everybody grew up that way and that neighboring school kids hated coming to our school for games because they always got beat up afterwards.

“But all that being said, I loved growing up there and still have close friends from those days that I keep in touch with. We used to play baseball, Red Light Green Light, Cops and Robbers, and Cowboy and Indians all in the middle of the street. Our parents thought nothing of letting us go to a Cubs game, Girl Scouts, the park, the lakefront, shopping, the pool, sometimes over a mile away without adult supervsion, as long as we were home by dark. In the early ’70s, the Francis Parker School would show old Japanese samurai movies and serve senbei in the lobby during intermission. That’s when I became a Mifune Toshiro fan.

“Some of my favorite memories were going to the Cubs games at Wrigley field. After school, I’d rush home to watch the end of a home game on TV and then run to where the players parked their cars to get autographs or take pictures. I still have all of those autographs, pictures, and baseball cards. I met a friend there and over three summers, she and I went to over 125 home games in the late ’70s. We got to know the Pinkerton security guards so they would sneak us in through the players’ door just before game time. During that time, some of the coaching staff would stop by the Nisei Lounge or Hamburger King, including Joe Amalfitano, Mike Roarke, and Cookie Rojas. On our road trip vacations, we would go see a Cubs game and Joe Amalfitano would arrange box seat tickets for us.”

—Emi Hirabayashi Buck, former resident/daughter of Nisei Lounge proprietor Kazuo “Zoke” Hirabayashi

* * * * *

“Even though my family moved to Minnesota in 1964, I kept in touch with my LeMoyne school buddies (also members of the CCP—Church of Christ Presbyteria—girl scout troop that my mother led) and when I moved back to Chicago as an adult we got together and still get together. LeMoyne was at Fremont and Addison and my class and scout troop and CCP Sunday School class were mostly JA. I lived just across from the school on Fremont, south of Addison. Only one of my friends’ families is still in Lakeview—everyone else left for the suburbs or Northwest Side.

“Links Hall at Sheffield and Newport was where my sister and I and many JA girls took ballet. While I took piano lessons from Miss Alice Mayeda, my parents signed my sister up for accordion lessons at Links Hall. I wish I still had that photo from one of the group concerts there—an accordion orchestra of at least three rows of practically all Asian (JA and Chinese) little boys and girls.”

—Rev. Patti Nakai (Buddhist Temple of Chicago), former resident

* * * * *

Yoshi’s Cafe
3257 N. Halsted (Map Item #88)
Yoshi Katsumura
Current status: Extant as of 2014
Photo courtesy of the author  

“Except for the seven years I was in Michigan going to college, I have lived my whole life on Wayne Avenue near Waveland. When I was a kid in the 1950s‐60s, I thought the whole Japanese American community lived within a couple of blocks east or west of Clark Street, from Diversey to Irving Park.

“At the same time, I thought of myself as just another American like everyone else. My family stressed that I be an American—although it was always understood that that meant I had to be better than the other American kids.

“My elementary school friends (James G. Blaine on Southport) were of the various immigrant ethnicities of the neighborhood—German, Italian, Polish, Irish, and Japanese. At least for my group, we were all just Americans palling around together. I never felt out of place or that I stood out.

“On Saturdays when I was a kid, we would take the Clark bus to Belmont and go to Toguri’s, then walk up to Star Market. We would take the short bus ride up Clark if we had too much to carry, or we would just walk home. I didn’t think of that as being unusual or not American—just our kind of American.”

—Michael Tanimura, lifelong resident

 

CLARK STREET

  1. Kiyo’s Japanese Restaurant: 2827 N. Clark
    —Closed
  2. Frank’s Jewelry: 2839 N. Clark (Frank Noda)
    —Moved from 1162-1/2 N. Clark
    —Closed
  3. Masumoto Funeral Service: 2843 N. Clark (Hiro Masumoto)
    —Masumoto later became funeral director at Scanlon Funeral Home, 2907 N. Clark
  4. Scanlon Funeral Home: 2907 N. Clark (Hiro Masumoto, director)
    —Later became Lakeview Funeral Home, 1458 W. Belmont
  5. Clark-Halsted Standard Service: 3040 N. Clark (George Yamaoka & Naoyuki Kasamoto)
    —Closed
  6. Barrie Kato, M.D.: 3179 N. Clark
    —Closed
  7. George Sasamoto, D.D.S.: 3179 N. Clark
    —Closed
  8. John Omori, O.D.: 3206 N. Clark
    —Closed
  9. Illinois Aikido Club: 3223 N. Clark (John Omori, Norman Miyagi, et al.)
    —Later renamed Chicago Aikikai, today located at 1444 W. Chicago
    —Still extant under new management
  10. Custom Cabinet Corporation: 3228 N. Clark (John Okumura/Akio Uyeda)
    —Moved from 3521 N. Halsted
    —Closed
  11. York Super Food Market: 3240 N. Clark (Tom Hayashi/Helen Fukuda)
    —Moved from 1250 N. Clark
    —Closed
  12. Miyako Restaurant: 3242 N. Clark
    —Moved from 1152 N. Clark
    —Closed
  13. Shiroi Hana: 3242 N. Clark (Kanji Muraoka/Hiroshi Takizawa, manager)
    —Closed
  14. Carl Kita Real Estate: 3248 N. Clark
    —Closed
  15. George Kita, Attorney at Law: 3248 N. Clark
    —Closed
  16. Mike’s Photo Studio: 3309 N. Clark
    —Closed
  17. Japan Books & Record Store: 3318 N. Clark
    —Closed
  18. Hawaiian Hut Cocktail Lounge: 3319 N. Clark
    —Closed
  19. Bento Restaurant: 3328 N. Clark (Ron Uchiyama)
    —Later moved to 3369 N. Clark
    —Closed
  20. Happi Sushi: 3346 N. Clark (Ken Shimbara)
    —Closed
  21. Haizara Kokan Lounge: 3346 N. Clark - 2nd Floor
    —Closed
  22. Aiko's Art Materials: 3347 N. Clark (Aiko Nakane)
    —Closed
  23. Star Market: 3349 N. Clark (Howard Hatanaka & Hayato Morikado)
    —Closed
  24. Star Japan Book: 3353 N. Clark (80s)
    —Closed
  25. Tokyo Video: 3353 N. Clark (90s)
    —Closed
  26. Joe Takehara, D.D.S.: 3355 N. Clark
    —Closed
  27. Tenkatsu Restaurant: 3365 N. Clark
    —Moved from 1151 N. Clark
    —Closed
  28. Yamato Restaurant: 3365 N. Clark
    —Closed
  29. Bento Restaurant: 3369 N. Clark (Ron Uchiyama)
    —Closed
  30. Suehiro Restaurant: 3374 N. Clark (Yaeko Oura)
    —Closed
  31. Nishikiori Piano Instruction: 953 W. Roscoe (Masako Nishikiori)
    —Closed
  32. Micky Cleaners: 3413 N. Clark (Takeo & Martha Deguchi)
    —Closed
  33. Matsuya: 3469 N. Clark (Noboru Asato / Mamoru & Michie Yokomori)
    —Moved from 1122 N. Clark
    —Moved to 3242 N. Clark (former site of Miyako Restaurant and Shiroi Hana Restaurant)
    —Still extant under new management
  34. Noodle Noodle & Nagano Restaurant: 3475 N. Clark (Mamoru & Michie Yokomori)
    —Closed
  35. Sanko Restaurant & Lounge: 3485 N. Clark (Sachiko Hotoda)
    —Closed
  36. Rafu Shimpo (Los Angeles Japanese News): 3719 N. Seminary (Yae Imamuro, Chicago Rep.)
    —Closed
  37. Tenrikyo Church: 3733 N. Clark (Teiji Suzuki)
    —Moved to 395 W. Golf Road, Des Plaines
    —Still extant
  38. Chicago Shimpo: 3744 N. Clark
    —Moved to 2045 S. Arlington Height Road, Arlington Heights (under new management)
    —Still extant

BELMONT AVENUE

  1. Chicago Japanese Seiko Kai (Japanese Language Anglican Church): 621 W. Belmont (Rev. Seiichi Michael Yasutake)
    - Closed
  2. J. Toguri Mercantile Co.: 851 W. Belmont (Jun Toguri)
    —Moved from 1128 N. Clark
    —Closed
  3. Japan Karate Association Chicago: 853 W. Belmont (Shojiro Sugiyama)
    —Moved to 1016 W. Belmont
    —Still extant under new management
  4. Fuji Beauty Salon: 909-1/2 W. Belmont (Fujiko Miyazaki)
    —Closed
  5. Diamond Trading Company (Toguri Food Shop): 913 W. Belmont
    —Moved from 1012/1108 N. Clark
    —Closed
  6. Nakayoshi Sushi: 919 W. Belmont
    —Closed
  7. Naniwa Sukiyaki: 923 W. Belmont
    —Closed
  8. Ben Chikaraishi, O.D.: 1011 W. Belmont
    —Moved from 1200 N. Clark
    —Moved to 3232 W. Bryn Mawr
    —Practice passed to son James Chikaraishi, O.D.
    —Still extant
  9. Jiro Yamaguchi, Attorney at Law: 1011 W. Belmont
    —Moved from 1200 N. Clark
    —Closed
  10. Chicago Japanese American Civic Association Credit Union: 1011 W. Belmont
    —Closed
  11. Harry Omori, D.D.S.: 1015 W. Belmont
    —Moved from 1200 N. Clark
    —Practice passed to son, Todd Omori, D.D.S.
    —Still extant
  12. Japanese Culture Center/Aikido Association of America: 1016 W. Belmont (Fumio Toyoda)
    —Management passed to son, Stephen Toyoda
    —Still extant
  13. Sanyo Noodle Mfg. Co.: 1406 W. Belmont
    —Closed
  14. Lakeview Funeral Home: 1458 W. Belmont (Hiro Masumoto)
    —Still extant

SHEFFIELD AVENUE

  1. Mont Blanc Patisserie: 1003 W. Diversey (Koji Okumura)
    - Moved to 274 E. Algonquin Rd., Arlington Heights
    - Still extant
  2. Sun Cleaners: 2950 N. Sheffield (Torao Hidaka)
    —Closed
  3. Lakeside Japanese Christian Church: 954 W. Wellington (Rev. Chiaki Kuzuhara)
    —Moved to 3939 W. Howard, Skokie
    —Still extant
  4. Japanese American Service Committee: 3257 N. Sheffield
    —Moved to 4427 N. Clark
    —Still extant
  5. Seicho No Iye: 3257 N. Sheffield
    —Moved to 609 Newberry Drive, Streamwood
    —Still extant
  6. M&M Cleaners: 3358 N. Kenmore (Helen Kawazoye)
    —Closed
  7. Susie’s Restaurant: 3422 N. Sheffield (Shizuka Nakashima)
    —Closed
  8. Newport Cleaners: 946 W. Newport (Richard Miyaki)
    —Closed
  9. Kimura Sushi: 952 W. Newport
    —Closed
  10. Hamburger King: 3435 N. Sheffield (Thomas Yamauchi, Chester Joichi)
    —Chester Joichi formerly owned Clark Restaurant at 851 N. Clark
    —Closed
  11. Fujima-ryu (Japanese Classical Dance): 3435 N. Sheffield – Links Hall, 2nd Floor (Shunojo Fujima)
    —Moved to 4427 N. Clark (JASC building)
    —Still extant
  12. Nisei Lounge: 3439 N. Sheffield (Hiroto “Kaunch” Hirabayashi / Kazuo “Zoke” Hirabayashi)
    —Moved from 1238 N. Clark
    —Still extant under new management
  13. Tensho Kodaijingukyo Church: 3510 N. Sheffield
    —Closed
  14. Church of Christ, Presbyterian: 3516 N. Sheffield (Rev. Hiroshi Izu/Rev. Hibino)
    —Moved to 5846 N. Spaulding
    —Still extant
  15. Shigin Kokusei Kai (Japanese Poetry): 3525 N. Sheffield
    —Closed
  16. Ono Apartments: 3531 N. Sheffield (Harry Ono)
  17. T&T Food Store: 957 W. Addison (Tsuyoshi Nakamura)
    —Closed
  18. Addison Cleaneres: 949 W. Addison (Saburo Ushida)
    —Closed
  19. Wilton Cleaner: 3608 N. Wilton (Nakagoro Nishimoto)
    —Closed
  20. Hikida Apartments: 3610 N. Fremont (Fred Hikida)
  21. Nagano Apartments: 3722 N. Fremont (Kenzo Nagano)
  22. Takahashi Apartments: 3753 N. Wilton (Taisuke & Isako Takahashi)
  23. Seicho No Iye Shiyo Soaikai: 3801 N. Fremont (Noboru Okayama)
    —Moved to 609 Newberry Drive, Streamwood
    —Still extant
  24. Fellowship Methodist Church: 912 W. Sheridan (Victor Fujiu)
    —Merged with Ravenswood United Methodist Church
    —Moved to 4511 N. Hermitage
    —Name changed to Ravenswood Fellowship United Methodist Church
    —Still extant

HALSTED STREET

  1. Midori Hamano, Attorney at Law: 2818 N. Halsted
    —Closed
  2. Television Experts Co. - Radio/TV Repair: 2821 N. Halsted (Roy Fukunaga)
    —Closed
  3. Arrow Pest Control: 2921 N. Halsted (James Hamano)
    —Closed
  4. Hamano Apartments: 2921 N Halsted (James Hamano)
  5. Mayeda Piano Instruction: 844 W. Oakdale (Alice Mayeda)
    —Closed
  6. Sakuma Apartments: 859 W. Oakdale
  7. Tom’s Standard Servie: 2936 N. Halsted (Tom Fukuda)
    —Closed
  8. Kiku’s – An American Bar: 754 W. Wellington
  9. Tanaka Tofu Mfg. Co.: 3255 N. Halsted
    —Became Takeshita Tofu Mfg. Co.
    —Closed
  10. Takeshita Tofu Mfg. Co.: 3255 N. Halsted (Kunio Takeshita)
    —Became Chicago Tofu Mfg. Co.
    —Closed
  11. Chicago Tofu Mfg. Co.: 3255 N. Halsted (Charles Ushijima)
    —Closed
  12. Yoshi’s Cafe: 3257 N. Halsted (Yoshi Katsumura)
    —Still extant
  13. Sasaki Encyclopedia Sales: 732 W. Aldine (Eddie Sasaki)
    —Closed
  14. Sasaki Violin Instruction: 732 W. Aldine (Katherine Sasaki)
    —Closed
  15. Kambara Apartments: 715 W. Aldine (Frank Kambara)
  16. Christ Church of Chicago: 701 W. Buckingham (Rev. George Aki)
    —Moved to 6047 N. Rockwell
    —Still extant
  17. Advanced Cleaners: 3334 N. Halsted (Yukio Umekubo)
    —Closed
  18. Paul M. Otake Insurance: 815 W. Newport
    —Closed
  19. Sho & Mim Barber Shop: 3455 N. Halsted (Sho & Mim Nakata)
    —Closed
  20. Felix’s Snack Shop: 3456 N. Halsted (Hideko Bousquet)
    —Closed
  21. Sun Cleaners: 3513 N. Halsted (Torao Hidaka)
    —Closed
  22. Custom Craft Cabinets: 3521 N. Halsted (John Okumura/Akio Uyeda)
    —Moved to 3228 N. Clark
    —Closed
  23. Brompton Beauty Salon: 3535 N. Halsted (Pat Tanaka)
    —Closed

BROADWAY STREET

  1. Frank’s Jewelry: 609-1/2 W. Diversey (Frank Noda)
    —Moved from 1162-1/2 N. Clark
    —Moved to 2839 N. Clark
    —Closed
  2. Andrew Kambara, D.D.S.: 639 W. Diversey
    —Closed
  3. Eugene Kawakami, D.D.S.: 639 W. Diversey
    —Still extant
  4. Isao’s Place: 2854 N. Broadway (Isao Tozuka)
    —Isao Tozuka later opened Chicago Kalbi at 3752 W. Lawrence
    —Closed
  5. Broadway Cleaners: 2901 N. Broadway (Masao & Fumiko Takata)
    —Closed
  6. Takahashi Chiropractic: 621 W. Wellington (Frank Takahashi)
    —Closed
  7. Barry-Regent Cleaners: 3000 N. Broadway (Asako Sasaki)
    —Still extant
  8. Tanaka Apartments: 611 W. Barry (Giichiro Tanaka—in Wanda Apt. Building)
  9. Takato Apartments: 611 W. Barry (Jitsuo Takato—in Wanda Apt. Building)
  10. Irene’s Alterations: 664 W. Barry (Irene Kawamoto)
    —Closed
  11. Cho Cho San: 3136 N. Broadway (Joni Ishida)
    —Joni Ishida subsequently opened Sunshine Café at 5449 N. Clark
    —Closed
  12. Nohana (former site of Cho Cho San): 3136 N. Broadway
    —Became Hatsu Hana
    —Closed
  13. Hatsu Hana (formerly Nohana): 3136 N. Broadway (Kazuo Sometani)
    —Still extant
  14. Johnny’s Three-Decker Sandwich Shop: 3152 N. Broadway (John Ishida)
    —Moved from 1358 N. Clark
    —Closed
  15. Ichiban Restaurant: 3155 N. Broadway (Ernie Kajita/Shiyouji Mita, manager)
    —Closed
  16. Lakeshore Jewelers: 3174 N. Broadway (William Kato)
    —Closed
  17. Frank’s Jewelry: 3174 N. Broadway (Frank Noda)
    —Moved from 1162-1/2 N. Clark
    —Moved to 2839 N. Clark
    —Closed
  18. Frank Kajiwara, O.D.: 3228 N. Broadway
    —Closed
  19. Triangle Camera: 3445 N. Broadway (James Ogata)
    —Moved from 1533 N. Clark
    —Closed
  20. Rome Photo Sales: 3445 N. Broadway (Michael Ogata)
    —Closed
  21. ARTGraphics: 3445 N. Broadway (Michael Kaneshiro)
    —Closed
  22. Hirakawa Apartments: 633 W. Stratford (James Hirakawa)
  23. Matsushima Apartments: 717 W. Cornelia (Joe Matsushima)
  24. Tyme Jewelers: 3561 N. Broadway
    —Closed
  25. Sakura Restaurant: 3738 N. Broadway
    —Closed
  26. Norsted Hotel: 3750 N. Broadway (Albert Yamamoto)
    —Closed
  27. The Marigold Bowl and Arcade: 828 W. Grace
    —Not JA-owned, but among the first to open their lanes to Japanese American bowling leagues
    —Closed
  28. Paul Doi Beauty Salon: 3804 N. Broadway
    —Closed
  29. James Higa, M.D.: 3810 N. Broadway
    —Closed
  30. Joe Nakayama, D.D.S.: 3810 N. Broadway
    —Closed

RACINE AVENUE

  1. Tom’s Standard Service: Lincoln/Diversey/Racine (Tom Fukuda)
    —Closed
  2. Mitsuji Doi Office – Real Estate: 1105 W. George
    —Closed
  3. Kuge Apartments: 1114 W. Oakdale (Takaye Kuge)
  4. Tanaka Apartments: 1203 W. Addison (Gontaro Tanaka)
  5. Nagata Apartments: 3610 N. Racine (Kiyono Nagata)
  6. Haruta Apartments: 3717 N. Racine (Kiichi Haruta)

SOUTHPORT AVENUE

  1. Mike’s Refrigeration Service: 2951 N. Southport (Mike Kubo)
    —Moved to 2237 W. Belmont, still extant
  2. Southport Cleaners: 3324 N. Southport (Ken Amano)
    —Closed
  3. Sun Cleaners: 3425 N. Southport (Torao Hidaka)
    —Closed
  4. Frank’s Standard Service: 3601 N. Southport (Frank Kanai)
    —Closed
  5. Silver Image Creative: 3705 N. Wayne (Michael Tanimura)
    —Still extant
  6. Sun Cleaners: 3756 N. Southport (Torao Hidaka)
    —Closed

ASHLAND AVENUE

  1. La Salle Photo Service, Inc.: 1700 W. Diversey (William Yamamoto)
    —Still extant under new management
  2. Midwest Aikido Center: 3249 N. Ashland (Akira Tohei)
    —Moved to 4349 N. Damen
  3. Rissho Kosei-Kai Buddhist Church: 3754 N. Ashland – 1980s
    —Moved to 1 W. Euclid Avenue, Mt. Prospect
    —Still Extant
  4. Rissho Kosei-Kai Buddhist Church: 1624 W. Grace (Mieko Matsumoto)– 1970s
    —Moved to 1 W. Euclid Ave. Mt. Prospect
    —Still extant
  5. Kawashima Trucking: 3847 N. Greenview (Ben Kawashima)
    —Closed

  

* The author wishes to express special thanks to the following for their extraordinary support and encouragement in this project:

Karen Kanemoto: Manager, Japanese American Service Committee Legacy Center Archives

Michael Takada: Chief Executive Officer, Japanese American Service Committee

Mary Doi: Board Member, Chicago Japanese American Historical Society

And all of the former residents who offered feedback and recollections.

 

© 2014 Erik Matsunaga

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