Akemi Kikumura Yano

Dr. Akemi Kikumura-Yano é Diretora Geral y presidente do Museu Nacional Japonês Americano, e é “Chefe de Projeto” do Projeto do Legado Nikkei, responsável pelo website Discover Nikkei. Ela tem doutorado em antropologia da Universidade da Califórnia em Los Angeles, e é autora e teatróloga premiada. Seu livro mais conhecido é Through Harsh Winters: The Life of a Japanese Immigrant Woman (“Através de Invernos Rigorosos: A Vida de uma Imigrante Japonesa”).

Atualizado em fevereiro de 2008

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Issei Pioneers - Hawaii and the Mainland 1885-1924 - Part 15

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FAMILY LIFE :  MARRIAGE

Eiji Uragami anxiously awaited the arrival of his young bride Kinuyo Shintaku.  He had been in the United States for twelve years, since 1903, and was thirty-four years old.  “I an getting tired of life as a bachelor,” he wrote to Kinuyo.  “It’s lonely coming home to an empty house after a long day’s work.”  Candidly he complained, “Sleeping alone for so many years has been such an inconvenience.  I’ll try my best to get you here as soon as I can so please be patient.”1  Nine more months passed …

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Issei Pioneers - Hawaii and the Mainland 1885-1924 - Part 14

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MASUO YASUI AND THE YASUI BROTHERS STORE

Masuo Yasui was one of these student-laborers who would play a vital part in the development of the Hood River, Oregon Japanese community,1  In 1903, Masuo Yasui arrived in the United States to attend school in Oregon, having already studied English at the Kojo Kan school in Japan.  His father, Shintaro, and his two elder brothers, Taiitsuro and Renichi, had come to America before him.  After working as a cook’s helper and a schoolboy for a Portland attorney, Masuo became quite fluent in English. 

A trip to Hood …

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Issei Pioneers - Hawaii and the Mainland 1885-1924 - Part 13

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MAINLAND TRADES AND SMALL BUSINESS

By 1910, vigorous Japanese communities were firmly established. The majority of these business establishments was started with a capital investment of less than a thousand dollars and run by the proprietors themselves. Undoubtedly, many of the early business ventures relied on the tanomoshi-ko (a rotating credit association), or other means of mutual support and protection.

In 1909, the Immigration Commission reported between 3,000 to 3,500 Japanese owned business in the Western United States.  Most of these establishments were in San Francisco, Los Angeles, Seattle, and Sacramento.  Of the 2,277 Japanese surveyed, …

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Issei Pioneers - Hawaii and the Mainland 1885-1924 - Part 12

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ALIEN LAND LAWS

In an attempt to drive the Japanese out of agriculture, California had passed the first Alien Land Law in 1913 aimed specifically at the Japanese. The Law prohibited “aliens ineligible to citizenship” and companies with a majority of Japanese stockholders from purchasing agricultural land or bequeathing or selling already owned agricultural land to a fellow immigrant.  The law also restricted land leases to a period of three years. 

An Issei man from Cortez, California explained how he and others managed to circumvent the alien land law:  “The late Mr. Caudwell,1 a lawyer …

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Issei Pioneers - Hawaii and the Mainland 1885-1924 - Part 11

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DESERTS TO FARMLANDS

          Resolved to become
          The soil of the foreign land,
           I settle down.1

Throughout the Pacific and Rocky Mountain states of America, the Japanese immigrants farmed.  In 1909, agriculture was by far the biggest employer of Issei laborers, with more than 38,000 employed as field hands at the height of the harvest.  Approximately 95 percent of these Japanese farm laborers worked in California.  More than the sum of other races combined, they provided the greatest source of temporary help.

As Toshisaburo Fukuzawa …

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