Nikkei in Japan

Several columns about dekasegi. "Virtual community, new alternative," "Anthrax, dekasegi and unemployment," and "Dekasegi and Peruvian TV."
  • 日系人問題 (今を生きる - 移住(外国人)労働者の人権 - 日韓在日プロジェクト 日韓交流プロジェクト編, 宣教委員会発行, 1999年, Page 12) (日本語)
The issue of Nikkeijin, related to the government policy.
 日本の高齢化危機を緩和する日系人移民 (英語)
Abstract: "Japan faces severe economic and demographic problems: an aging society, an underfunded social security system, declining consumption levels, a large public debt and problems in the financial sector. These problems directly and/or indirectly contribute to the current economic slowdown in Japan. One solution for raising economic activity may lie elsewhere rather than in expansionary monetary and fiscal policies - by increasing the economically active population through temporary immigration, which may help to offset aging, re-finance the social security system and increase public transfers to the treasury. This immigration solution, of course, would work only under a given set of conditions. These conditions would require that temporary immigrants of Nikkeijin - Japanese descendants born and domiciled abroad - be complements to Japanese workers while making positive fiscal contributions. Given these positive effects, simulation analysis is conducted to determine a type and number of Nikkeijin who would contribute most to the public treasury."
日本における外国人労働者の政治的形成 (英語)
A series of articles about education of children of dekasegi in Japan.
日本にいる出稼ぎの子供達の教育についての記事。 (スペイン語)
Examines patterns of discrimination in Japan, focusing on the experiences of Japanese-Brazilians living in the region around Hamamatsu, and the precedent-setting judicial decision in the case of a Brazilian journalist who brought suit against shopkeepers for trying to exclude her from their store.
This is a summary report on their research about remittances to Latin America from Japan, which presented at its 46th Annual Meeting in Okinawa, Japan, April 10-12, 2005, although their research does not destinguish between "Nikkei" and "non-Nikkei". Additional information is also available as "Survey of Remittances--"Remitances from Japan to Latin America: Studies of Latin American immigrants living and working in Japan." (PowerPoint)
Brief examination of the reverse migration of Latin American Nikkei to Japan.
Session held at the 1995 Annual Meeting of the Association for Asian Studies (Washington, DC), organized by Keiko Yamanaka (University of California, Berkeley). Includes abstracts of the following papers: "Legal Rights and Legislative Benefits of Foreign Workers in Japan" by Ronald C. Brown, University of Hawai'i, Manoa; "Latin American Immigrant Community in Japan" by Keiko Yamanaka, University of California, Berkeley, and Eunice A. Ishikawa Koga Ochanomizu University; "Documenting the Undocumented: NGOs and Foreign Workers in Japan" by Glenda S. Roberts, University of Hawai'i, Manoa; and "Protecting the Human Rights of Foreign Workers in Japan: The Politics of Prostitution and Murder" by David Groth, University of Hawai'i, Hilo.
Excerpt: "...[T]here are now approximately 233,000 individuals of Japanese descent from Brazil, Peru, and other Latin American countries in Japan, and most of them are engaged in so-called simple labor. This category encompasses all foreign workers other than those who are considered professionals with technical skills not available within Japan. This category therefore includes a wide variety of workers and is not always defined as equal to "unskilled labor." In that sense, these individuals of Japanese descent from Latin America can be said to be the first foreign labor accepted by Japan since the end of the war. Nevertheless, we cannot ignore the fact that various problems have arisen from the acceptance of these foreign workers. Many of these problems are similar to those encountered by Germany and other West European nations since they began accepting foreign workers in the 1960s."
"We have designed this web site to create a transnational space that explores Brazilian and Peruvian experiences in Japan. The site explores a world enmeshed in the negotiation of economics, ethnicity, nationality, community, and -- ultimately -- identity."
From the section, "Who We Are": "From March 14-26 [year?] we traveled to Japan as a field research component of our Connecticut College history course entitled Transnational Brazil / Multi-Cultural Japan. After three days of seminars with Japanese Latin Americanists at the Tokyo University of Foreign Studies, we traveled two hours north west of Tokyo to our main research site - the town of Oizumi (in the Gunman prefecture). We spent the first portion of our semester researching archival material on Japanese-Brazilian and Japanese-Peruvian re-emigration to Japan. We researched for a week, speaking, playing, eating and capturing a piece of the Nikkei experience. We interviewed and interacted with the Brazilians and Peruvians in Oizumi, and kept in mind how we, as researchers, are part of the transnational equation."
Abstract for panel presentation at the 7th Asian Studies Conference Japan, Sophia University, June 22, 2003, in Session 30: "On the Periphery of the Empire: The Creation of New Racial, Cultural and Gender Identities in Modern Japan".
"'Bubetsu' is about the plight of Jimmy, a young Japanese-American who idealizes Japanese culture after seeing the Japanese Olympic players' victory in the Los Angeles games. Disheartened by the racism he must face daily in the United States, he goes to Japan to experience what he perceives to be the superior culture of his native country. Not long after his arrival in Japan, Jimmy realizes that most Japanese look at him with disdain because he is not truly Japanese. Using the theoretical framework of post-colonialists such as Homi Bhabha and Trinh Minh-ha, I examine how Tamura juxtaposes words such as 'bunka' (culture) and 'bunmei' (civilization) with 'yaban' (barbarous) and 'mikai' (uncivilized) as the Other becomes the Otherer. By reversing and subverting these binaries, Tamura reveals the false premises and paradoxes upon which ideas of cultural supremacy, pure race, and nationalism were used as rhetorical weapons to justify one group's oppression of another during the politically turbulent years of the 1930s."
Even though the proportion of foreigners in Japan's labor market is small -- less than 1.5% of 53 million workers -- their remittances supply more money to the world's developing countries than the entire Japanese foreign aid budget.


徳島大学の樋口直人さんによる論文『日系ブラジル人の移住過程』 (英語のみ)
日本人移住と出稼ぎ現象 (ポルトガル語のみ)
History of the dekasegi reverse migration from Brazil to Japan, from the 1980's to today.
グローバル社会における日系ブラジル人の役割 (英語)
Research report about "Cross-cultural exchange by Nikkei Brazilian: life and child education" (Japanese only)
Paper presented at the conference Cultural Encounters between Latin America and the Pacific Rim, March 6-7, 1998.
An abbreviated version of this paper was published as "Japanese in Brazil or Brazilians in Japan? The Course Followed by Identity in a Migration". Asia-Latin America vol. 6, no. 3 (September-December 1998).
A series of articles about "Japan from the view point of elderly dekasegi in Japan." (日本語)
"[The] wave of Brazilian emigrants, which began in the 1980s and intensified in the 1990s, also accentuates the insecurities of the Nikkei with respect to their national identity. In Brazil they are referred to as 'Japanese', but in Japan they feel more like foreigners, despite their physical likeness to the local population."
"Dr. Takeyuki Tsuda (UC San Diego) asks: Are Japanese Brazilian Migrants in Japan a Transnational Community?"
Speech by Parliamentary Secretary for Foreign Affairs Mr. Katsuyuki Kawai at the General Assembly of the Parliamentary Confederation of the Americas (May 9, 2005, Iguacu, Brazil)
Describes efforts by Angelo Ishi, journalist and professor at Musashi University, to counter discriminatory statements about the Brazilian Nikkei living in Japan.
"As entidades voltadas ao atendimento das pessoas que retornam do arquipélago fornecem informações e orientações para a melhor readaptação no Brasil."
Resumo: "O presente texto aborda a migração de descendentes de japoneses de Londrina que vão trabalhar no Japão na qualidade de trabalhadores não especializados, aproveitando a falta deste tipo de mão-de-obra naquele país. Realizam o fluxo inverso de seus pais e avós que chegaram ao Brasil no início do século com a mesma perspectiva, ou seja, poder retornar ao país e iniciar uma vida com condições melhores junto à seus familiares. Procuramos entender desta forma, o contexto amplo em que as migrações estão inseridas, e o que elas determinam/evidenciam no contexto social."
Abstract: "This text approaches the migration of Japanese descendants of Londrina to work in Japan. They will not be specialized workers, taking advantage of the lack of this labor type in the country. They are accomplishing the inverse flow of their grandparents and parents, who arrived in Brazil during the beginning of the 20th century with the same perspective. We tried to understand this way, the wide context in which the migrations take place, and what they determine in the social context."
Resumo: "Temos como preocupação saber como tem se comportado os Estados Japão e Brasil perante a atual migração internacional de brasileiros descendentes de japoneses, conhecidos como dekasseguis, que desde o final da década de 1980 tem se dirigido ao Japão na condição de trabalhadores para executar trabalhos 'braçais'. O Estado brasileiro que no início do século financiou a vinda dos imigrantes japoneses ao seu território, assume agora a posição de expectador dessa migração de brasileiros ao Japão, estando, contudo ciente das remessas dos dekasseguis ao Brasil. O Japão diante do aumento da imigração ilegal ao seu território, em função de uma demanda de trabalhadores mais baratos, assume o papel de controlador desse fluxo migratório, enrijecendo as barreiras à entrada do imigrante ilegal e permitindo a entrada do imigrante descendente de japonês.
Resumen: "En un contexto de circulación rápida de capitales e informaciones analizamos los flujos y redes de la migración temporaria de brasileños a Japón, discutiendo los conflictos y las contradicciones del retorno de los nipobrasileños a la tierra del 'sol naciente'."
Abstract: "In a context of quick circulation of capitals and informations we seek to analyze the flows and nets from the temporary migration of brazilians to Japan, dealing with the conflicts and the contradictions of the return of the nipo-brazilian ones to 'land of the rising sun.'"


Examine issues of Nikkei Peruvian in Japan based on the data from the questionnaires to Nikkei Peruvian in Kamata, Ota-ku Tokyo.
Abstract: "This article analyzes the search for identity and community in essays written for a Peruvian contest on the theme 'Mi experiencia en el Japón: Una lección de vida.' I argue that the texts show complex relationships among ethnicity, nationality, language, and class as the authors consider the effect of their time in Japan on themselves and their communities. Peruvians of Japanese descent, the nikkei, write of their suffering and alienation whereas a non-nikkei finds inspiration for Peru’s future in Japan. All the authors try to reconcile an ideal of global citizenship with their individual experiences of difference."
In the centennial year of Japanese emigration to Peru, this article describes the reverse migration of Japanese-Peruvian dekasegis back to Japan.


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