Speaking Up! Democracy, Justice, Dignity

日系アメリカ人の地位回復を果たした「市民自由法」制定25周年を記念して、全米日系人博物館は、2013年7月4日から7日にかけてワシントン州シアトルで、第4回全米会議『Speaking Up! Democracy, Justice, Dignity』を行いました。この会議では、民主主義、正義、尊厳をテーマに、新しい見識、学術的論考、コミュニティの観点を紹介しました。

このシリーズでは、今回の会議で発表されたさまざまな視点からみる日系アメリカ人の体験談だけでなく、会議に参加した方々の反応などを中心に紹介します。

会議についての詳しい内容は、全米会議のウェブサイトをご参照ください>> 

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Legalizing Detention: Segregated Japanese Americans and the Justice Department’s Renunciation Program - Part 4 of 9

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End of Army Occupation

The WRA and the Army had very different organizational dynamics, and their relationship was often tense and fraught with disagreement. Conflict over management of the stockade climaxed on May 23, 1944, when the WRA’s Board of Inquiry approved the release of two inmates, while the Army disapproved their release. After a conference between WRA and Army officials on May 24, 1944, Director Best, by letter to Lt. Col. Verne Austin, Commander, 752nd Military Police Battalion, Tule Lake, requested complete authority to control the stockade in order to prevent future disagreements. In ...

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Legalizing Detention: Segregated Japanese Americans and the Justice Department’s Renunciation Program - Part 3 of 9

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The Stockade: Symbol of the Worthlessness of U.S. Citizenship

With the Center’s elected leaders imprisoned in the stockade, the stockade became the omnipresent reminder of the keepers’ arbitrary use of power at Tule Lake. It was an evocative reminder of the unjust post-Pearl Harbor roundups of Japanese American community leaders who were singled out and imprisoned, punished for their prominence and leadership.

In a 15-page letter written September 19, 1944 to U.S. Attorney General Francis Biddle,1 a group of 27 inmates imprisoned in the stockade, who were later moved to the Department of ...

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Legalizing Detention: Segregated Japanese Americans and the Justice Department’s Renunciation Program - Part 2 of 9

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Martial Law 

With most of the elected Nikkei leadership imprisoned in the stockade, Commander Austin made plans for a mass public meeting on November 13, 1943 to be attended by the Army and WRA and the Negotiating Committee. This mass meeting never materialized as the prisoner population did not show up. Only the Army and WRA were present; they conducted their program without an audience. Commander Austin made proclamations to govern operation of the center, which, in effect, placed the Center under martial law.1 The Army then took over the camp with machine guns and tanks ...

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Legalizing Detention: Segregated Japanese Americans and the Justice Department’s Renunciation Program - Part 1 of 9

I hope this uniquely American story will serve as a reminder to all those who cherish their liberties of the very fragility of their rights against the exploding passions of their more numerous fellow citizens, and as a warning that they who say that it can never happen again are probably wrong.

—Michi Nishiura Weglyn, Years of Infamy

Among the many stories of Tule Lake, perhaps the saddest and least known is that of the approximately 5,500 Americans of Japanese descent who renounced their U.S. citizenship during World War II. At Tule Lake, 7 out of 10 citizens ...

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